Membrane filtration systems are critical in many industries, producing clean water and high-quality food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. They are popular due to their selectivity, energy efficiency, and chemical-free impurity removal.

Membrane System Specialists, Inc. (MSS) specializes in custom-designed skid-built processing systems for membrane filtration, pasteurization, CIP, and process piping/integration. Our solutions focus on quality, energy efficiency, and flexibility for future expansion. In addition, we offer single to multi-system process designs, engineering, equipment fabrication, and operator training.

This post will cover everything you need to know about membrane filtration systems.

Membrane Filtration Process

Membrane filtration is a process that separates particles based on size and charge by passing a liquid stream through a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane acts as a barrier that allows certain components to flow through while retaining others, facilitated by a pressure differential across the membrane.

The size of the pores is crucial in determining which particles can pass through, with smaller pores enabling more selective separation. Thus, this technology is widely used across various industries for efficient particle filtration by controlling pore size.

Types of Membrane Filtration

There are several membrane filtration systems, each with unique characteristics and applications. The most common types of membrane filtration systems include the following:

Ultrafiltration (UF)

Ultrafiltration utilizes membranes with larger pores and lowers pressure to filter substances. It allows small compounds — such as salts, sugars, and organic acids — to pass through while retaining larger compounds, such as proteins, fats, and polysaccharides. UF systems are typically used in food, pharmaceutical, and water treatment industries.

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis involves using a highly restrictive membrane for liquid separation. It only allows water to pass through, preventing other substances — such as bacteria, spores, fats, proteins, gums, salts, sugars, and minerals — from permeating. It is used in desalination, wastewater treatment, and semiconductor manufacturing.

Nanofiltration (NF)

Nanofiltration permits small compounds, such as minerals, to pass through while restricting larger ones and most organic substances. The size of the pores in the nanofiltration membrane is between those of reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. As a result, it is utilized in various industries for water purification and separation processes.

Microfiltration (MF)

Microfiltration uses a semi-permeable membrane with pores larger than those used in ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis. The membrane allows liquids to pass through while retaining suspended solids, bacteria, and fat globules. This technology is widely used in the food and beverage industry for clarification, sterilization, and concentration of liquids. It is also used in wastewater treatment to remove suspended solids and other contaminants.

Advantages of Membrane Filtration

Membrane filtration systems offer numerous advantages in various industrial applications. Here are some of their key benefits:

High Filtration Efficiency

They are extremely effective in removing impurities and pollutants at the molecular level. This makes them ideal for removing suspended solids and other particles from liquids and gasses.

Selective Separation

Membrane filtration systems can selectively separate molecules, allowing some to flow through while keeping others. Membrane pore size, surface chemistry, and charge contribute to this selectivity.


Due to their great efficiency, low energy consumption, and decreased chemical requirements, membrane filtration systems are more cost effective than traditional filtering systems. Additionally, because these systems may run continually, they require less maintenance and cleaning.

Reduced Environmental Impact

Membrane filtration systems are less environmentally harmful than traditional methods. Additionally, they can frequently recover useful materials, eliminating waste, pollution and recovering water.


They are highly adaptable and may be tailored to various applications. For instance, they may be constructed in many shapes, including flat sheets, hollow fibers, and spiral-wound modules, allowing for design, operation, and scale-up flexibility.

High-Quality Product

Membrane filtration systems are suited for producing high-quality products with consistent characteristics. This makes them a preferred choice for the food and beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Additionally, they can produce ultrapure water in industrial and laboratory settings.

Applications of Membrane Filtration

Membrane filtration is a highly versatile technology with widespread applications across various industries. Below are some of their common uses:

Water Treatment

Membrane filtration can effectively eliminate suspended solids, microorganisms, and dissolved solids, ensuring the water’s safety for consumption or discharge. It is extensively employed in treating drinking water, wastewater, and industrial process water.

Food and Beverage Industry

The food and beverage industry uses membrane filtration systems to clarify and concentrate products such as milk, juices, beer, and wine. It adds value to low value streams.

Pharmaceutical Industry

The pharmaceutical industry uses membrane filtration to separate and purify drugs, vaccines, and other pharmaceutical products. Further, it aids in the purification of water used in the drug pharmaceutical industry.

Biotechnology Industry

Membrane filtration systems are useful for the biotechnology industry for producing biologics, including monoclonal antibodies, precision proteins, and vaccines. They also assist in removing contaminants from cell cultures and the concentration of biomolecules.

Oil and Gas Industry

Membrane filtration is employed in the oil and gas industry to treat produced water extracted alongside oil and gas. It eliminates oil, grease, and other impurities from the water before discharge.

Electronics Industry

Membrane filtration can remove dissolved solids and other impurities, making high-purity water. Thus, the electronics industry employs membrane filtration to produce ultra-pure water, which is utilized in manufacturing microchips and other electronic components.

Factors To Consider When Selecting a Membrane Filtration System

When selecting a membrane filtration system, several factors need to be considered, including the following:

Membrane Material

The membrane material should be selected based on the application and the type of contaminants that need to be removed. For instance, polyethersulfone (PES) membranes are often used for pharmaceutical applications because of their high chemical resistance and low protein binding.

Pore Size

The pore size of the membrane should be chosen based on the size of the contaminants that need to be removed. A membrane with a smaller pore size will be more effective at removing smaller particles but may also be more prone to fouling.

Flux Rate

The flux rate is when water or other fluids pass through the membrane. This is an important consideration for large-scale applications, as a higher flux rate will allow for faster filtration.

Operating Conditions

The operating conditions of the filtration system, such as temperature and pressure, should be compatible with the membrane material and pore size.


The cost of the membrane filtration system should be weighed versus its effectiveness and the application’s specific needs.

MSS: Your Partner for Fluid Separation Solutions

At MSS, we specialize in providing custom fluid separation systems for various industries. Our team of experienced professionals is dedicated to delivering efficient and cost-effective solutions to meet our customers’ needs.

Our primary products include membrane filtration systems for milk and commercial beer filtration. We use proven filtration processes that have been industry-tested in-house and within the dairy industry. Moreover, our custom designs are based on our customers’ unique requirements

MSS prides itself on delivering some of the fastest lead times in the industry. We also provide replacement membranes quickly, ensuring our customers maintain maximum separation efficiency. We cover all the bases, from design and manufacturing to installation, commissioning, training, and ongoing support!

Contact us today to request a quote and see how we can help with your fluid separation needs.